Glossary / Lexicon from abylonsoft

Definitions of terms

In the lexicon or glossary explains abylonsoft topics of general interest around the offered software products, computers and technology. The column with the letter S contains 20 entries, like for example SHS/SHA.

Column S 20 entries

S/MIME Process

S/MIME procedure stands for "Secure / Multiporpose Internet Mail Extension" and extends the MIME format for sending binary files via E-Mail to include encryption and digital signature for RSA. As with the public-key encryption method, a certificate with a key pair consisting of a public and a private key is required.
As an alternative to the S/MIME method, the PGP method is also quite common.

see also: RSA Verschlüsseln Signatur PGP Public Key Verfahren Zertifikate

SAN Certificate

The abbreviation SAN means Ssubject Aalternative Name. With special SAN certificates, several subject names can be specified in one data field. This is particularly useful for SSL certificates, which are used to secure several domain names with one certificate. These can be subdomains or completely different Internet addresses. The certificates created with abylon SELFCERT currently only support one subject.

see also: Zertifikate X.509 Certificates


SHS/SHA (Secure Hash Aalgorithm) is a hash method. Since weaknesses in the SHA-1 method were discovered in the early 2000s, only the SHA-2 or SHA-3 method should be used today. On 2 October 2012, the hash process known as the Keccak process won the SHA-3 competition. It offers a variable hash length of typically 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits and runs 24 laps.

see also: Hash valü


SME is the abbreviation for "Secure Message Envelop" and is also used as a file extension for signed and encrypted messages. See "Digital Envelop" for more information.

see also: Digital Envelope Signature Verschlüsseln Certificate


The password or secret based SYMM system is especially suitable for private individuals and small companies. To encrypt files, only a password has to be entered via the keyboard or a secret key has to be inserted. Various contact and radio chip cards, CDs/DVDs, USB storage media or Bluetooth devices can be used as secret hardware keys. As usual with symmetric encryption, the identical key must be used for decryption. Only if you use the correct password and/or the appropriate hardware key will you receive the unencrypted original file. The advantage of the SYMM system is that it is easy to use, which makes it especially useful for protection of data on your own computer. If the data is to be encrypted for another person, the password must always be communicated to the recipient. The security of the encryption is guaranteed by the large key length and the globally recognized encryption algorithms AES (key length 256 bits) and/or Blowfish (key length 448 bits). Thus the encrypted files are secure as long as the password remains secret or the hardware key does not fall into the wrong hands.

see also: Symmetric encryption AES Blowfish Password HYBRID-System


A secret is required to encrypt data. Only with this secret is it possible to decrypt the data. The abylonsoft software supports the use of X.509 certificates in the HYBRID system and the input of passwords via keyboard in the SYMM system, the use of processor chip cards (e.g. EC cards), the use of memory chip cards (e.g. health insurance cards), written CDs and DVDs, RFID radio cards or USB storage media (e.g. USB sticks).

A good password is at least 12 characters long and contains upper and lower case letters, special characters and numbers. This password should not be used more than once. Additional security is provided by 2-factor authentication, consisting of 2 different secrets. Here a Haqrdwareschlüssel can be combined with a password.

see also: Secret Key Verfahren SYMM-System HYBRID-System Password Authentifizierung Verschlüsseln Zutrittskontrolle

Secret Key

Data should be protected from unwanted access during encryption. In addition to the encryption algorithm used, a secret key is used to create the ciphertext from plain text. This key is also needed during decryption to get the ciphertext back to plaintext. A password can be used as the key, which, unlike the encryption algorithm, must remain secret (Kerckhoff's principle). In today's digital world, the secret key is a bit sequence that is generated either from a password with letters and numbers or from hardware (e.g. chip card).

In contrast to the secret key with symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption requires a key pair of public and private keys for encryption and decryption.

see also: Symmetric encryption Password Encrypting Cryptography Chipkarte Private Key Public Key

Secure Message Envelope (SME)

A Secure Message Envelop (SME) is used to protect digital email traffic. Further information is described under the alternative name "Digital Envelop".

see also: Digital Envelope (SME-File) Signature Encrypting

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Secure Sockets Layer is an old term for Transport Layer Security for the secure transmission of data over an open network, such as the Internet. For more information, see Transport Layer Security (TSL).

see also: Transport Layer Security (TSL)

Self-signed Certificates

For self-signed certificates, the authenticity of the data is not checked by a CA, trust center or other authority. This saves the costs for the verification, but the certificate can contain any, even untrue, data. Therefore, self-signed certificates should only be used for private purposes or any other level of trust. With the software abylon SELFCERT only self-signed certificates can be created, which for example do a good service for encryption.

see also: X.509 Certificates Certificate Authentication Certification Authority Trustcenter

Seo (Search Engine Optimization)

Almost 90 percent of Internet visitors use search engines to find websites on specific topics. SEO is used to ensure that these pages appear at the top of search engine rankings. Search engine optimization is an effective means of Internet marketing. Many companies therefore make use of an SEO agency or a corresponding service provider, who use their know-how to optimize the customer's website through various measures in order to achieve a better positioning in the search engines. SEO is therefore of great importance for a successful internet presence.

see also: Internet Traces


Since Windows 2000, it has been possible for programs to register themselves as Windows system services. These run in the background and offer no or only in very rare cases interaction possibilities for the user. The term "service" is also often used. Services can be started BEFORE logging on to Windows and run constantly in the background during PC use. Under Windows, all services entered in the registry database will be displayed via Control Panel -> Administration -> Services. Beside the numerous operating system services also many programs install one or even several services, which even have very extensive access rights. The multitude of services can lead to a slowing down of the operating system starts and a significant reduction in performance. Therefore the list should be checked at regular intervals and unwanted services should be stopped or removed. This is also possible with the application abylon APP-BLOCKER.

see also: Process list Autostart

Shredder Level

The software of abylonsoft offers the following deletion methods for the final removal of data from the computer:

  • Level 0: Remove shortcuts (corresponds to the normal deletion in File Explorer)
  • Level 1: The data is overwritten 1x (binary zeros)
  • Level 2: The data are overwritten 3x (DOD - default = 1. random numbers + 2. binary F + 3. binary zero)
  • Level 3: The data are overwritten 7x (DOD II - default = 3x binary zeros + 3x binary F + 1x random numbers)
  • Level 4: The data is overwritten 13x (3x random numbers + DOD - II + 2x random numbers + 1x binary zeros)
  • Level 5: The data will be overwritten 35 times (Peter Gutman method - see document for description)

The higher the "shredder level", the more thoroughly the data will be destroyed. However, with each overwrite cycle the required deletion time increases.

see also: Shreddern DoD method Peter Gutman Method Wipe Fastmode


When deleting files normally, this data is not deleted completely, but only the references in the directory list are removed. With special programs the deleted files can be reconstructed. Unlike mechanical shredders, Software-Shredder does not shred the data, but overwrites it several times. As with the mechanical counterpart, the reconstruction of deleted files is made more difficult or prevented in this way.

For Shredder or Shredder the alternative names Eraser or Cleaner are also widely used for software products.

see also: Clustertips Free-Space Internet Traces Shredder Level


The signature corresponds to a digital signature for electronic data. Signatures are considered legally valid under the Signature Act and are thus treated in the same way as a handwritten signature.

A certificate with a public key and a private key is required for the digital signature. For signing, the hash value (checksum, fingerprint) of the file is first formed and signed with the private key of the signer (a special type of encryption). Only the hash value is signed, thus saving computing time and storage space. The mathematical process of hashing must be a one-way function. The signature and the public key of the signer are attached to the data. The verification of the signature is called verification.

see also: Hash valü Verifikation Certificate SME-File Private Key Public Key

Single Sign-On (SSO)

The English term "Single Sign-On" is often referred to in German as Einmalanmendung. As the term already suggests, this means that the user only has to authenticate himself once and subsequently has several different authorizations or can use services. The login can be done by the correct combination of name and password or a hardware key (e.g. smart card or USB token). This procedure is used for the Microsoft account (formerly Windows Live-ID), for Google or Facebook Connect and also for the software abylon KEYSAFE and abylon LOGON SSO inserted.

The advantage of the "Single Sign-On" is the higher comfort. The user only has to remember a password or possess a key. However, this also results in the biggest disadvantage. As soon as the key falls into the wrong hands or the master password is no longer secret, the complete identity can be taken over by an attacker. The possible damage is far greater than if this were only the case for a limited area.

see also: Chip cards Authentication Access Control

Small PKI

PKI is the abbreviation for "Public Key Infrastructure" and stands for the complex process of certificate creation and management.

The use of abylon Small PKI makes complex applications for the administration of employee certificates superfluous. Small to medium enterprises can manage the public certificates of all employees centrally on one server. The Windows registry on a computer, which should always be available via the network, is used as the directory. The entries in the registry are made under HKLM. To access the encrypted data, the private key of the authorized user is required. The complete certificate with private key is installed by the employees who work on a computer. Via the Small PKI it is now possible to access the public keys of all other employees.

In the applications of abylonsoft the module abylon SELFCERT or the corresponding freeware can be used for the certificate creation.

see also: File PKI PKI Certificate X.509 Certificates


Smartcard is the English name for processor chip card. Further information under "Chipcard".

see also: Processor Chipcards Chip cards


Steganograpphie refers to the hiding of data in images, videos, texts or other data. In most cases, the data to be hidden is encrypted beforehand. Steganography is often used for covert transmission. Another application is the copyright protection. Invisible messages are built into pictures or videos in order to be able to prove their origin later.

see also: Encrypting

Symmetric encryption

Symmetric Encryption ChartSymmetric encryption has been known since ancient times. The main feature of symmetric encryption is the use of the same key for encryption and decryption, using many different methods (e.g. AES, Blowfish or RC4 algorithms). The individual encryption methods are divided into block encryption and power encryption. The security of the encrypted file depends on the encryption method, the password and the key length. Small key lengths of less than 128 bits are considered insecure today. The higher the key length depending on the encryption algorithm, the more secure is the encryption . The disadvantage of symmetric encryption is that the password must also be transmitted when data is exchanged via insecure channels (e.g. Internet). This password transfer can, for example, be made more secure by personal transfer or the use of alternative channels (telephone). With asymmetric encryption, this disadvantage is eliminated by the use of a key pair.

see also: SYMM-System IDEA Blowfish AES DES Password Asymmetric encryption

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